【译】QGIS培训手册-样式

3.2. 样式(Lesson: Symbology)

图层的样式就是一个图层在地图上的表现形式。在表现空间数据方面,GIS与其他方式相比,它可以对数据进行动态化的可视化表达。The symbology of a layer is its visual appearance on the map. The basic strength of GIS over other ways of representing data with spatial aspects is that with GIS, you have a dynamic visual representation of the data you’re working with.)

因此,地图的可视外观 (这取决于各自的层数的样式) 是非常重要的。地图的最终用户需要能够很容易地看懂你制作的地图的意思。同样,在你探索数据的时候也需要看懂它们。这时候,好的样式就会很管用了。(Therefore, the visual appearance of the map (which depends on the symbology of the individual layers) is very important. The end user of the maps you produce will need to be able to easily see what the map represents. Equally as important, you need to be able to explore the data as you’re working with it, and good symbology helps a lot.)

换句话说,设置恰当的图层样式是非常有必要的。事实上,它对正确使用GIS和制作供他人使用的地图来说至关重要。In other words, having proper symbology is not a luxury or just nice to have. In fact, it’s essential for you to use a GIS properly and produce maps and information that people will be able to use.)

本节课的目标:能够为任何矢量图层创建任何样式。(The goal for this lesson: To be able to create any symbology you want for any vector layer.)

3.2.1. basic 跟我做:换换颜色(Follow Along: Changing Colors)

要改变图层的样式,请打开图层属性,让我们从改变 landuse层的颜色开始。(To change a layer’s symbology, open its Layer Properties. Let’s begin by changing the color of the landuse layer.)

  • 在图层列表中右键点击 landuse图层。(Right-click on the landuse layer in the Layers list.)
  • 在出现的菜单中选择属性。(Select the menu item Properties in the menu that appears.)

Note

默认情况下,你也可以通过双击图层的方式打开图层的属性对话框。(By default, you can also access a layer’s properties by double-clicking on the layer in the Layers list.)

属性窗口中:(In the Properties window:)

  • 在左侧选择样式选项卡:(Select the Style tab at the extreme left:)

../../../_images/layer_properties_style.png

  • 点击颜色标签右侧的颜色选择器。(Click the color select button next to the Color label.)

将会出现一个标准的颜色对话框。(A standard color dialog will appear.)

  • 选择一个灰色,并点击确定。(Choose a gray color and click OK.)
  • 图层属性窗口中再次点击确定,这时候你会看到设置好的颜色出现在地图上。(Click OK again in the Layer Properties window, and you will see the color change being applied to the layer.)

 

3.2.2. basic 动手试(Try Yourself)

请自己将 water 层的颜色设置为浅蓝色。(Change the water layer to a light blue color.)

3.2.3. basic 跟我做:改变样式的结构(Follow Along: Changing Symbol Structure)

到目前为止,看上去还不错。但除了颜色之外呢,图层的样式还有很多其他方面的内容。下一步我们将除去不同地块( landuse )之间的线条,使地图看上去更简洁。(This is good stuff so far, but there’s more to a layer’s symbology than just its color. Next we want to eliminate the lines between the different land use areas so as to make the map less visually cluttered.)

  • 打开 landuse 层的图层属性窗口。(Open the Layer Properties window for the landuse layer.)

样式选项卡下,你会看到跟之前一样的内容。这次,我们不仅仅是改变颜色了。(Under the Style tab, you will see the same kind of dialog as before. This time, however, you’re doing more than just quickly changing the color.)

  • 在 图层样式 面板中,展开 填充 下拉列表(如果没有展开的话),并选择 简单填充 选项:【译者注:在一些新的qgis版本中,界面布局可能与下面略有不同】(In the Symbol Layers panel, expand the Fill dropdown (if necessary) and select theSimple fill option:)

../../../_images/simple_fill_selected.png

  • 点开 线条样式 的下拉列表,这时候会看到实线、虚线的一些选项。(Click on the Border style dropdown. At the moment, it should be showing a short line and the words Solid Line.)
  • 选择 不显示画笔 (Change this to No Pen.)
  • 点击 确定。(Click OK.)

现在landuse图层在区域之间将不再有线条分隔了。( Now the landuse layer won’t have any lines between areas.)

3.2.4. basic 动手试(Try Yourself)

  • water 层的样式调整为:带有深蓝色边线。(Change the water layer’s symbology again so that it is has a darker blue outline.)
  • rivers 层的样式调整为:将水道(waterways)调整为合适的样式。(Change the rivers layer’s symbology to a sensible representation of waterways.)

回复本文来查看你是否做对了~

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你的地图会看起来像这样子:(Your map should now look like this:)

../../../_images/answer_symbology1.png

如果你是初学者的话,你可以在此止步了。【译者注:不用止步,初学者也可以尝试做下面的三行练习】(If you are a Beginner-level user, you may stop here.)

  • 用之前上面说到的方法来改变其他图层的颜色和样式。(Use the method above to change the colors and styles for all the remaining layers.)
  • 尝试用贴切自然的颜色来表达各个对象。比如,道路不应该是红色或蓝色的,它应该是灰色或者黑色。【译者注:中国好像喜欢用红啊黄啊的表示道路捏】(Try using natural colors for the objects. For example, a road should not be red or blue, but can be gray or black.)
  • 同时,请自由的探索改变多边形填充样式和线条样式的不同方法。(Also feel free to experiment with different Fill Style and Border Style settings for the polygons)


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