2.1. 简介(Lesson: A Brief Introduction)

欢迎来到我们的课程!接下来我们将你学会如何轻松高效地使用 QGIS如果你是GIS新手我们会告诉你从什么开始如果你是一个有经验用户您将看到 QGIS能实现所有期待的所有GIS软件功能和更多内容。(Welcome to our course! Over the next few days, we’ll be showing you how to use QGIS easily and efficiently. If you’re new to GIS, we’ll tell you what you need to get started. If you’re an experienced user, you’ll see how QGIS fulfills all the functions you expect from a GIS program, and more!)

本单元中,我们将介绍 QGIS这个开源 项目以及它的用户界面。(In this module we introduce the QGIS project itself, as well as explaining the user interface.)

完成章节的学习后将:能够正确识别 QGIS 窗口中主要元素,知道它们的具体用途,并能会加载shp文件到QGIS中。(After completing this section, you will be able to correctly identify the main elements of the screen in QGIS and know what each of them does, and load a shapefile into QGIS.)


课程包括有关添加 删除改变 GIS 数据集指令我们之前已经提供过相关示例数据集在操作和使用你自己数据之前,确保已经备份!(This course includes instructions on adding, deleting and altering GIS datasets. We have provided training datasets for this purpose. Before using the techniques described here on your own data, always ensure you have proper backups!)

2.1.1. 如何使用本教程(How to use this tutorial)

任何 像我这样的文字  表示可以点击的链接。(Any text that looks like this refers to something on the screen that you can click on.)

任何 像 ‣ 我这样 ‣的文字 表示菜单或操作步骤(Text that looks ‣ like ‣ this directs you through menus.)

像我这样的文字表示你要输入的内容,比如一句命令,路径或文件名。(This kind of text refers to something you can type, such as a command, path, or file name.)

2.1.2. 课程目标(Tiered course objectives)

课程迎合不同经验水平的用户需求分为三个级别根据你自己的实际情况可以有不同课程训练内容和成果每个级别所包含的信息和内容都对下一个级别至关重要,所以,请确保完成你所处的级别和低于你级别的所有练习。(This course caters to different user experience levels. Depending on which category you consider yourself to be in, you can expect a different set of course outcomes. Each category contains information that is essential for the next one, so it’s important to do all exercises that are at or below your level of experience.) basic初级(绿色标签)( Basic)

在这个类别,课程将假定你有很少或没有事先熟悉GIS(地理信息系统)的理论知识或GIS程序的操作。(In this category, the course assumes that you have little or no prior experience with theoretical GIS knowledge or the operation of a GIS program.)

我们会提供有限理论知识背景来解释在QGIS中具体操作目的,重点是你要边学边做。(Limited theoretical background will be provided to explain the purpose of an action you will be performing in the program, but the emphasis is on learning by doing.)

当您完成该课程时,你将会对GIS有更好的概念理解,并能知道如何通过 QGIS来运用它们。(When you complete the course, you will have a better concept of the possibilities of GIS, and how to harness their power via QGIS.) moderate中级(蓝色标签)( Intermediate)

在此级别中,我们假定你有GIS工作知识和经验,并每天使用它们。(In this category, it is assumed that you have working knowledge and experience of the everyday uses of GIS.)

按照初级水平的有关步骤操作,QGIS会把你带到熟悉的场景中,使你意识到 QGIS 与其他GIS软件的不同之处,并学习如何在 QGIS 中使用分析功能。(Following the instructions for the beginner level will provide you with familiar ground, as well as to make you aware of the cases where QGIS does things slightly differently from other software you may be used to. You will also learn how to use analysis functions in QGIS.)

当您完成该课程时,你将能很熟练的使用 QGIS 来处理所有你平时所使用的一些GIS功能。(When you complete the course, you should be comfortable with using QGIS for all of the functions you usually need from a GIS for everyday use.) hard 高级(红色标签)(Advanced)

在此级别中,我们假定你是经验丰富的GIS使用者, 了解并使用过空间数据库,使用过在远程服务器上的数据,并编写过分析脚本等等。(In this category, the assumption is that you are experienced with GIS, have knowledge of and experience with spatial databases, using data on a remote server, perhaps writing scripts for analysis purposes, etc.)

遵循另外两个级别的指导能够让你熟悉QGIS的界面操作,并能确保你掌握你所需要的功能。你也会学习到如何使用QGIS的插件系统,数据访问系统等等。(Following the instructions for the other two levels will familiarize you with the approach that the QGIS interface follows, and will ensure that you know how to access the basic functions that you need. You will also be shown how to make use of QGIS’ plugin system, database access system, and so on.)

完成课程会熟练掌握 QGIS的日常使用操作,和它高级功能。(When you complete the course, you should be well-acquainted with the everyday operation of QGIS, as well as its more advanced functions.)

2.1.3. 为什么选择QGIS?(Why QGIS?)

随着信息与空间之间的关联越来越密切,目前并不缺乏能够履行部分全部常用 GIS 功能的软件。那为什么要使用 QGIS而不是其他的GIS软件呢?As information becomes increasingly spatially aware, there is no shortage of tools able to fulfill some or all commonly used GIS functions. Why should anyone be using QGIS over some other GIS software package?)

这里只是一些原因:(Here are only some of the reasons:)

  • 它是免费的安装使用 QGIS 程序金钱成本为零初始没有年度订阅费用什么都没有。(It’s free, as in lunch. Installing and using the QGIS program costs you a grand total of zero money. No initial fee, no recurring fee, nothing.)
  • 它是自由的。如果您需要在 QGIS 额外功能,除了傻等下一个软件版本包含此功能外,你还可以做更多:可以赞助开发某一项功能或直接自己开发它(前提是你会编程哦)。(It’s free, as in liberty. If you need extra functionality in QGIS, you can do more than just hope it will be included in the next release. You can sponsor the development of a feature, or add it yourself if you are familiar with programming.)
  • 它正在不断发展的。因为任何人都可以添加新功能和改进现有的 QGIS ,所以它从不停滞。新的工具和插件可以因为你的需要而被快速开发出来。(It’s constantly developing. Because anyone can add new features and improve on existing ones, QGIS never stagnates. The development of a new tool can happen as quickly as you need it to.)
  • 它有广泛的帮助文件和文档。如果你遇到任何问题,你可以阅读官方文档、求助于其他QGIS 用户甚至是开发人员。(Extensive help and documentation is available. If you’re stuck with anything, you can turn to the extensive documentation, your fellow QGIS users, or even the developers.)
  • 它是跨平台的。QGIS可以安装在 Mac Windows Linux 上。(Cross-platform. QGIS can be installed on MacOS, Windows and Linux.)

现在,你知道为什么要使用 QGIS了,接下来我们会告诉你如何使用。第一节课将指导你创建第一个 QGIS 地图。(Now that you know why you want to use QGIS, we can show you how. The first lesson will guide you in creating your first QGIS map.)

原作者:Linfiniti Consulting CC.   翻译:数据地图博客


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