PPT绘图系列免费视频教程开课啦

经过一段时间的尝试,自己录制了几小段视频教程。现在本博主打算推出自己的视频教程产品。欢迎大家关注哦~

【额,因为是第一次尝试,录得不太好,还请各位多谅解】

目前的demo:

http://i.xue.taobao.com/detail.htm?spm=a2174.7765247.0.0.LNxCMU&courseId=89084

课程亮点:

课程亮点:

【译】操作矢量数据

3.1. 操作矢量数据(Lesson: Working with Vector Data)

矢量数据无疑是GIS日常操作中最常见的一种数据。它以点、线和多边形的形式来描绘地理数据。矢量数据集中的每个对象被称为形状(feature),并有相对应的数据与之关联。(Vector data is arguably the most common kind of data you will find in the daily use of GIS. It describes geographic data in terms of points, that may be connected into lines and polygons. Every object in a vector dataset is called a feature, and is associated with data that describes that feature.)

本节课的目的:学习矢量数据的结构,并掌握如何加载他们到地图中。(The goal for this lesson: To learn about the structure of vector data, and how to load vector datasets into a map.)

3.1.1. basic 跟我做:查看图层属性(Follow Along: Viewing Layer Attributes)

首先要明确的是,我们即将操作的数据,不仅代表了他们在空间中的位置,还包含了他们是什么的各种属性(It’s important to know that the data you will be working with does not only represent where objects are in space, but also tells you what those objects are.)

接前面的练习,在你的地图中已经加载了道路层。你也可以看到现在只是展示了道路的位置。(From the previous exercise, you should have the roads layer loaded in your map. What you can see right now is merely the position of the roads.)

要看到所有的形状要素属性,先在图层列表面板中选中该图层。(To see all the data available to you, with the roads layer selected in the Layers panel:)

  • 点击这个按钮:attributes(Click on this button: attributes

你会看到一个关于道路图层有更多信息的数据表。这些额外的数据被称为属性数据。在地图中能看到的那些线条是空间数据。(It will show you a table with more data about the roads layer. This extra data is called attribute data. The lines that you can see on your map represent where the roads go; this is the spatial data.)

这是GIS中很常见的一些定义,比较重要,请记住它们。(These definitions are commonly used in GIS, so it’s essential to remember them!)

  • (现在,可以关闭属性表了)You may now close the attribute table.

矢量数据在坐标平面上以点、 线和多边形的形式来表现图形要素。它通常用于存储离散的图形要素,如道路和城市街区等。(Vector data represents features in terms of points, lines and polygons on a coordinate plane. It is usually used to store discrete features, like roads and city blocks.)

3.1.2. basic 跟我做:从shp加载矢量数据(Follow Along: Loading Vector Data From Shapefiles)

Shapefile 是一种可以将 GIS 数据存储在一组关联的多个文件中的特定文件格式【译者注:每个shp文件都是由多个文件组成的】。这些文件有共同的文件名,但是有各自的不同的扩展名(文件类型)。Shapefiles 可以很方便的来回发送,并且大多数 GIS 软件都可以阅读它们。(The Shapefile is a specific file format that allows you to store GIS data in an associated group of files. Each layer consists of several files with the same name, but different file types. Shapefiles are easy to send back and forth, and most GIS software can read them.)

参考上一节所讲的如何加载矢量图层的方法,(Refer back to the introductory exercise in the previous section for instructions on how to add vector layers.)

把以下数据集加载到地图中:(Load the data sets into your map following the same method:)

  • “places”
  • “water”
  • “rivers”
  • “buildings”

 

3.1.3. basic 跟我做:从数据库中加载矢量数据(Follow Along: Loading Vector Data From a Database)

数据库能够让你在一个文件中存储了大量的相关联的数据。您可能已经对类似 Microsoft Access这样的 数据库管理系统 (DBMS)有所了解。GIS应用程序也可以使用的数据库。具有地理信息系统特性的 DBMS (比如 PostGIS) 会有额外的功能,因为他们需要处理空间数据。(Databases allow you to store a large volume of associated data in one file. You may already be familiar with a database management system (DBMS) such as Microsoft Access. GIS applications can also make use of databases. GIS-specific DBMSes (such as PostGIS) have extra functions, because they need to handle spatial data.)

  • 点击这个按钮:mActionAddSpatiaLiteLayer(Click on this icon: mActionAddSpatiaLiteLayer

(如果你找不到该按钮,检查 图层管理 工具栏是否被打开)(If you’re sure you can’t see it at all, check that the Manage Layers toolbar is enabled.)

将打开一个新的对话框。在这个对话框中:(It will give you a new dialog. In this dialog:)

  • 点击新建 按钮。(Click the New button.)
  • 在之前的路径下,找到landuse.sqlite这个文件。选中它,并打开。(In the same folder as the other data, you should find the file landuse.sqlite. Select it and click Open.)

你会看到在刚刚的那个对话框里面,三个按钮的上面已经填写上了 “land_use.db@…”这样的文字,@后面跟着的是你计算机上数据库文件的路径。You will now see the first dialog again. Notice that the dropdown select above the three buttons now reads “land_use.db@…”, followed by the path of the database file on your computer.

  • 点击 连接 按钮。你会发现在原来的空白区域多出了一条内容:(.Click the Connect button. You should see this in the previously empty box:)

../../../_images/spatiallite_dialog_connected.png

  • 点击 landuse 图层来选中它,然后点击 添加按钮。(Click on the landuse layer to select it, then click Add)

Note

记得要养成经常保存地图的习惯!地图文件不会直接包含任何数据,但是它会记住那些已被加载的图层。(Remember to save the map often! The map file doesn’t contain any of the data directly, but it remembers which layers you loaded into your map.)

3.1.4. 跟我做:给图层排序(Follow Along: Reordering the Layers)

在图层列表中的图层会按照一定的顺序进行绘制。在列表顶部的图层最先绘制,列表底部的图层最后绘制。通过更改它们在列表中排列的顺序,可以更改绘制它们的顺序。(The layers in your Layers list are drawn on the map in a certain order. The layer at the bottom of the list is drawn first, and the layer at the top is drawn last. By changing the order that they are shown on the list, you can change the order they are drawn in.)

Note

根据你所使用的 QGIS 的版本,在图层列表下面可能会有一个叫控制渲染顺序 的复选框。如果想要实现通过上下排序来控制图层先后顺序,必须将这个复选框选中。如果您的版本的 QGIS 没有此选项,它就是默认开启的,你不需要担心这件事【译者注:在最新的QGIS版本中,已经没有了这个复选框】。(Depending on the version of QGIS that you are using, you may have a checkbox beneath your Layers list reading Control rendering order. This must be checked (switched on) so that moving the layers up and down in the Layers list will bring them to the front or send them to the back in the map. If your version of QGIS doesn’t have this option, then it is switched on by default and you don’t need to worry about it.)

当前已经加载的图层可能绘制的顺序是不合逻辑的。比如道路可能是完全被挡住的,因为有别的图层在它上面。The order in which the layers have been loaded into the map is probably not logical at this stage. It’s possible that the road layer is completely hidden because other layers are on top of it.

比如说这种图层顺序(landuse就会把road挡住):(For example, this layer order..).

../../../_images/incorrect_layer_order.png

通过以下措施来解决这个问题:(To resolve this problem:)

  • 按住并拖拽某个图层(来调整顺序)(Click and drag on a layer in the Layers list.)
  • 将各个图层按以下顺序排序:(Reorder them to look like this:)

../../../_images/correct_layer_order.png现在地图变得更有意义了,道路和建筑物出现在土地使用区域的上面。(You’ll see that the map now makes more sense visually, with roads and buildings appearing above the land use regions.)

3.1.5.小结( In Conclusion)

现在你已经学会了添加不同来源的矢量图层。(Now you’ve added all the layers you need from several different sources.)

3.1.6. What’s Next?

使用加载图层时随机生成的样式和颜色可能会导致你的地图不太好识别。所以我们要自己来设定他们的颜色和符号,这就是下一节课的内容。(Using the random palette automatically assigned when loading the layers, your current map is probably not easy to read. It would be preferable to assign your own choice of colors and symbols. This is what you’ll learn to do in the next lesson.)

【译】QGIS培训手册-添加第一个图层

2.2. 添加第一个图层(Lesson: Adding your first layer)

我们将启动该应用程序,并创建一个基本的地图,用来示范和练习。(We will start the application, and create a basic map to use for examples and exercises.)

本课目标:从示例地图开始学(The goal for this lesson: To get started with an example map.)

Note

在开始这项工作之前, 你的计算机上必须已经安装有QGIS。另外,你可以从QGIS data downloads area下载training_manual_exercise_data.zip文件,用于本次练习。(Before starting this exercise, QGIS must be installed on your computer. Also, download thetraining_manual_exercise_data.zip file from the QGIS data downloads area.)

根据你具体的安装情况,从桌面或者开始菜单中启动QGIS。(Launch QGIS from its desktop shortcut, menu item, etc., depending on how you configured its installation.)

Note

本次课程的截图来自MacOS版本的QGIS 2.0,根据你的电脑的实际情况,你看到的操作界面可能与此不同。但是所有按钮的样式是相同的,所有的操作在任何操作系统上都是可以实现的。你需要安装QGIS2.0来使用本教程。【译者注:截止到2015年8月4日,QGIS最新版本为2.10.1,不管你安装哪个版本,都可以使用本教程】The screenshots for this course were taken in QGIS 2.0 running on MacOS. Depending on your setup, the screens you encounter may well appear somewhat different. However, all the same buttons will still be available, and the instructions will work on any OS. You will need QGIS 2.0 (the latest version at time of writing) to use this course.

让我们立马开始吧!(Let’s get started right away!)

 

2.2.1. basic 跟我做:准备一张地图(Follow Along: Prepare a map)

  • 打开QGIS,你会看到一个新建的空白地图。(Open QGIS. You will have a new, blank map.)
  • 找到添加矢量图层按钮mActionNewVectorLayer。(Look for the Add Vector Layer button: mActionNewVectorLayer
  • 点击它打开以下对话框:(Click on it to open the following dialog:)

../../../_images/add_vector_dialog.png

  • 点击浏览按钮,导航到 exercise_data/epsg4326/roads.shp 这个文件(在示例数据集的目录下)。选中该文件后,点击打开。你会看到刚刚那个对话框,但是文件路径填写在数据源的文本框里了。继续点击打开。你指定的数据将被加载到窗口中。(Click on the Browse button and navigate to the file exercise_data/epsg4326/roads.shp (in your course directory). With this file selected, click Open. You will see the original dialog, but with the file path filled in. Click Open here as well. The data you specified will now load.)

恭喜你!你现在完成了一个基本的地图。现在让我们来保存一下当前的工作。(Congratulations! You now have a basic map. Now would be a good time to save your work.)

  • 点击另存为按钮:mActionFileSaveAs。(Click on the Save As button: mActionFileSaveAs
  • 将地图保存在 exercise_data/ 路径下,并取名为 basic_map.qgs 。(Save the map under exercise_data/ and call it basic_map.qgs.)

检查结果(通过发表评论,检查你是否做对了):

——————————————————-

你会看到许多的线条,各式各样的道路。这些线条都来自你刚刚加载的图层。(You should see a lot of lines, symbolizing roads. All these lines are in the vector layer that you just loaded to create a basic map.)

——————————————————-

2.2.2. 小结(In Conclusion)

你已经学会了如何添加一个图层,并创建一个基本的地图!(You’ve learned how to add a layer and create a basic map!)

2.2.3. 接下来学什么?(What’s Next?)

现在你已经知道了如何使用添加矢量图层按钮但是所有其他的按钮是干啥的?这个操作界面是如何工作的呢?在我们学习更多内容之前让我们好好 QGIS 操作界面总体布局这就下一主题。(Now you’re familiar with the function of the Add Vector Layer button, but what about all the others? How does this interface work? Before we go on with the more involved stuff, let’s first take a good look at the general layout of the QGIS interface. This is the topic of the next lesson.)

原作者:Linfiniti Consulting CC.   翻译:数据地图博客

【译】QGIS培训手册-简介

2.1. 简介(Lesson: A Brief Introduction)

欢迎来到我们的课程!接下来我们将你学会如何轻松高效地使用 QGIS如果你是GIS新手我们会告诉你从什么开始如果你是一个有经验用户您将看到 QGIS能实现所有期待的所有GIS软件功能和更多内容。(Welcome to our course! Over the next few days, we’ll be showing you how to use QGIS easily and efficiently. If you’re new to GIS, we’ll tell you what you need to get started. If you’re an experienced user, you’ll see how QGIS fulfills all the functions you expect from a GIS program, and more!)

本单元中,我们将介绍 QGIS这个开源 项目以及它的用户界面。(In this module we introduce the QGIS project itself, as well as explaining the user interface.)

完成章节的学习后将:能够正确识别 QGIS 窗口中主要元素,知道它们的具体用途,并能会加载shp文件到QGIS中。(After completing this section, you will be able to correctly identify the main elements of the screen in QGIS and know what each of them does, and load a shapefile into QGIS.)

警告Warning

课程包括有关添加 删除改变 GIS 数据集指令我们之前已经提供过相关示例数据集在操作和使用你自己数据之前,确保已经备份!(This course includes instructions on adding, deleting and altering GIS datasets. We have provided training datasets for this purpose. Before using the techniques described here on your own data, always ensure you have proper backups!)

2.1.1. 如何使用本教程(How to use this tutorial)

任何 像我这样的文字  表示可以点击的链接。(Any text that looks like this refers to something on the screen that you can click on.)

任何 像 ‣ 我这样 ‣的文字 表示菜单或操作步骤(Text that looks ‣ like ‣ this directs you through menus.)

像我这样的文字表示你要输入的内容,比如一句命令,路径或文件名。(This kind of text refers to something you can type, such as a command, path, or file name.)

2.1.2. 课程目标(Tiered course objectives)

课程迎合不同经验水平的用户需求分为三个级别根据你自己的实际情况可以有不同课程训练内容和成果每个级别所包含的信息和内容都对下一个级别至关重要,所以,请确保完成你所处的级别和低于你级别的所有练习。(This course caters to different user experience levels. Depending on which category you consider yourself to be in, you can expect a different set of course outcomes. Each category contains information that is essential for the next one, so it’s important to do all exercises that are at or below your level of experience.)

2.1.2.1. basic初级(绿色标签)( Basic)

在这个类别,课程将假定你有很少或没有事先熟悉GIS(地理信息系统)的理论知识或GIS程序的操作。(In this category, the course assumes that you have little or no prior experience with theoretical GIS knowledge or the operation of a GIS program.)

我们会提供有限理论知识背景来解释在QGIS中具体操作目的,重点是你要边学边做。(Limited theoretical background will be provided to explain the purpose of an action you will be performing in the program, but the emphasis is on learning by doing.)

当您完成该课程时,你将会对GIS有更好的概念理解,并能知道如何通过 QGIS来运用它们。(When you complete the course, you will have a better concept of the possibilities of GIS, and how to harness their power via QGIS.)

2.1.2.2. moderate中级(蓝色标签)( Intermediate)

在此级别中,我们假定你有GIS工作知识和经验,并每天使用它们。(In this category, it is assumed that you have working knowledge and experience of the everyday uses of GIS.)

按照初级水平的有关步骤操作,QGIS会把你带到熟悉的场景中,使你意识到 QGIS 与其他GIS软件的不同之处,并学习如何在 QGIS 中使用分析功能。(Following the instructions for the beginner level will provide you with familiar ground, as well as to make you aware of the cases where QGIS does things slightly differently from other software you may be used to. You will also learn how to use analysis functions in QGIS.)

当您完成该课程时,你将能很熟练的使用 QGIS 来处理所有你平时所使用的一些GIS功能。(When you complete the course, you should be comfortable with using QGIS for all of the functions you usually need from a GIS for everyday use.)

2.1.2.3. hard 高级(红色标签)(Advanced)

在此级别中,我们假定你是经验丰富的GIS使用者, 了解并使用过空间数据库,使用过在远程服务器上的数据,并编写过分析脚本等等。(In this category, the assumption is that you are experienced with GIS, have knowledge of and experience with spatial databases, using data on a remote server, perhaps writing scripts for analysis purposes, etc.)

遵循另外两个级别的指导能够让你熟悉QGIS的界面操作,并能确保你掌握你所需要的功能。你也会学习到如何使用QGIS的插件系统,数据访问系统等等。(Following the instructions for the other two levels will familiarize you with the approach that the QGIS interface follows, and will ensure that you know how to access the basic functions that you need. You will also be shown how to make use of QGIS’ plugin system, database access system, and so on.)

完成课程会熟练掌握 QGIS的日常使用操作,和它高级功能。(When you complete the course, you should be well-acquainted with the everyday operation of QGIS, as well as its more advanced functions.)

2.1.3. 为什么选择QGIS?(Why QGIS?)

随着信息与空间之间的关联越来越密切,目前并不缺乏能够履行部分全部常用 GIS 功能的软件。那为什么要使用 QGIS而不是其他的GIS软件呢?As information becomes increasingly spatially aware, there is no shortage of tools able to fulfill some or all commonly used GIS functions. Why should anyone be using QGIS over some other GIS software package?)

这里只是一些原因:(Here are only some of the reasons:)

  • 它是免费的安装使用 QGIS 程序金钱成本为零初始没有年度订阅费用什么都没有。(It’s free, as in lunch. Installing and using the QGIS program costs you a grand total of zero money. No initial fee, no recurring fee, nothing.)
  • 它是自由的。如果您需要在 QGIS 额外功能,除了傻等下一个软件版本包含此功能外,你还可以做更多:可以赞助开发某一项功能或直接自己开发它(前提是你会编程哦)。(It’s free, as in liberty. If you need extra functionality in QGIS, you can do more than just hope it will be included in the next release. You can sponsor the development of a feature, or add it yourself if you are familiar with programming.)
  • 它正在不断发展的。因为任何人都可以添加新功能和改进现有的 QGIS ,所以它从不停滞。新的工具和插件可以因为你的需要而被快速开发出来。(It’s constantly developing. Because anyone can add new features and improve on existing ones, QGIS never stagnates. The development of a new tool can happen as quickly as you need it to.)
  • 它有广泛的帮助文件和文档。如果你遇到任何问题,你可以阅读官方文档、求助于其他QGIS 用户甚至是开发人员。(Extensive help and documentation is available. If you’re stuck with anything, you can turn to the extensive documentation, your fellow QGIS users, or even the developers.)
  • 它是跨平台的。QGIS可以安装在 Mac Windows Linux 上。(Cross-platform. QGIS can be installed on MacOS, Windows and Linux.)

现在,你知道为什么要使用 QGIS了,接下来我们会告诉你如何使用。第一节课将指导你创建第一个 QGIS 地图。(Now that you know why you want to use QGIS, we can show you how. The first lesson will guide you in creating your first QGIS map.)

原作者:Linfiniti Consulting CC.   翻译:数据地图博客

【译】QGIS培训手册-准备练习数据

1.2. 准备练习数据(Preparing Exercise Data)

本培训教程附带提供威兰登周边地区的数据作为示例数据。史威兰登镇位于南非西北开普敦的开普敦镇东部,两镇距离 2 小时的路程数据集中的要素名称包含了英语南非荷兰语两种形式。(The sample data provided with the Training Manual refers to the town of Swellendam and its surroundings. Swellendam is located about 2 hours’ east of Cape Town in the Western Cape of South Africa. The dataset contains feature names in both English and Afrikaans.)

尽管大家都可以很容易的使用数据集可能愿意使用来自自己国家故乡数据来练习如果选择这样本地化数据可用于单元3-单元7.2之间的所有练习。但你自己准备的数据可能不大适合后面的单元练习。(Anyone can use this dataset without difficulty, but you may prefer to use data from your own country or home town. If you choose to do so, your localised data will be used in all lessons from Module 3 to Module 7.2. Later modules use more complex data sources which may or may not be available for your region.)

Note

为了让课程组织者经验丰富 的QGIS 用户来创建属于他们本地化示例数据默认数据集由培训手册提供如果希望替换默认数据可以按照下面这些说明来操作。(This process is intended for course conveners, or more experienced QGIS users who wish to create localised sample data sets for their course. Default data sets are provided with the Training Manual, but you may follow these instructions if you wish to replace the default data sets.)

Note

本课程所使用的示例数据集可从这个链接下载。http://qgis.org/downloads/data/training_manual_exercise_data.zip(The sample data used throughout the manual can be downloaded here:http://qgis.org/downloads/data/training_manual_exercise_data.zip

1.2.1. 动手试(Try Yourself)

Note

如果您进行以下的操作,我们会假定您已掌握了较好的 QGIS 知识,是初次作为教材使用。【译者注:如果你想用自己的本地数据,可以参考以下步骤,如果觉得看不懂,就乖乖用官方提供的数据即可。】(These instructions assume you have a good knowledge of QGIS and are not intended to be used as teaching material.)

如果你本地的数据集替换默认数据可以轻松通过内置的 QGIS 工具来完成。但选择使用的区域应该很好的同时包含城市农村地区包含不同等级的道路 不同的区域边界 (如自然保护区农场) 和水域小溪河流等。(If you wish to replace the default data set with localised data for your course, this can easily be done with tools built into QGIS. The region you choose to use should have a good mix of urban and rural areas, containing roads of differing significance, area boundaries (such as nature reserves or farms) and surface water, such as streams and rivers.)

  • 打开一个空白的QGIS工程(Open a new QGIS project)
  • 在“矢量”下拉菜单下,选择“开放街道地图(OpenStreetMap)“->”下载数据”。你可以进一步的手动输入你想设置的区域坐标,或者你可以通过一个图层来设置边界。(In the Vector menu dropdown, select OpenStreetMap -> Download Data. You can then manually enter the co-ordinates of the region you wish to use, or you can use an existing layer to set the co-ordinates.)
  • 选择一个位置来保存输出结果的.osm文件,并点击“确定”:(Choose a location to save the resulting .osm file and click Ok:)

../../../_images/set_osm_region.png

  • 你可以通过“添加矢量图层”按钮来打开刚刚的osm文件,在浏览窗口的文件类型中选择“全部文件”以便能方便找到osm文件。或者你可以直接将osm文件拖拽到QGIS窗口中来打开。(You can then open the .osm file using the Add Vector Layer button. You may need to select All files in the browser window. Alternatively, you can drag and drop the file into the QGIS window.)
  • 在弹出的图层选择窗口中,选择除other_relations 和multilinestrings之外的所有图层。(In the dialog which opens, select all the layers, except the other_relations andmultilinestrings layer:)

../../../_images/select_osm_layers.png

点击“确定”后会加载四个符合OSM命名协定的图层,通过缩放工具来查看此矢量数据。(This will load four layers into your map which relate to OSM’s naming conventions (you may need to zoom in/out to see the vector data).)

../../../_images/osm_data_loaded.png

我们需要这些中提取有用数据它们重命名创建相应shp文件:(We need to extract the useful data from these layers, rename them and create corresponding shape files:)

  • 首先,双击multipolygons图层来打开图层属性对话框。(First, double-click the multipolygons layer to open the Layer properties dialog.)
  • 在通用标签下,点击“查询生成器”来打开查询生成器窗口。(In the General tab, click Query Builder to open the Query builder window.)

我们将提取该图层的下面三个字段:(This layer contains three fields whose data we will need to extract for use throughout the Training Manual:)

  • building
  • natural (specifically, water,主要指水域)
  • landuse

可以测试你选择的区域产生什么样结果如果发现“landuse”没有返回任何结果,就可以随时排除该区域,重新选一块。(You can sample the data your region contains in order to see what kind of results your region will yield. If you find that “landuse” returns no results, then feel free to exclude it.)

需要为每个字段编写筛选器表达式来提取我们需要数据我们将使用“building”字段作为一个例子说明:(You’ll need to write filter expressions for each field to extract the data we need. We’ll use the “building” field as an example here:)

  • 把下面这个表达式输入到文本区域:building != “NULL”   然后点击“测试”来观察本次查询返回了多少条结果。如果返回的结果数很少,你可以打开图层的“属性表”来看一下从OSM获取到了缩少本区域的数据:(Enter the following expression into the text area: building != "NULL" and click Test to see how many results the query will return. If the number of results is small, you may wish to have a look at the layer’s Attribute Table to see what data OSM has returned for your region:)

../../../_images/building_query_builder.png

  • 点击“确定”,你会看到不属于建筑物(building)的要素从地图上隐藏掉了。(Click Ok and you’ll see that the layer elements which are not buildings have been removed from the map.)

我们需要将查询结果保存为shp文件,以便用于本次培训课程:(We now need to save the resulting data as a shapefile for you to use during your course:)

  • 右键点击multipolygons图层,并选择”另存为“。(Right-click the multipolygons layer and select Save As…)
  • 请确认保存文件类型为ESRI shapefile,并将文件保存到你自己的”exercise_data“文件夹下,并将该文件夹放到”epsg4326“的目录下。【译者注:就是放到”/epsg4326/exercise_data/“下面】(Make sure the file type is ESRI Shapefile and save the file in your new exercise_datadirectory, under a directory called “epsg4326”.)
  • 保存过程中确保选中”无样式“,我们会再稍后的课程中添加样式。(Make sure No Symbology is selected (we’ll add symbology as part of the course later on).)
  • 你也可以选中”将保存后的文件添加到地图“(You can also select Add saved file to map.)

一旦查询出为”building”的数据后,你可以通过在查询生成器中替换原来的表达式为以下表达式来查询”natural“和”landuse“的数据:(Once the buildings layer has been added to the map, you can repeat the process for thenatural and landuse fields using the following expressions:)

Note

在执行下一段查询之前请确认已经将之前的查询表达式全部清除!(Make sure you clear the previous filter (via the Layer properties dialog) from themultipolygons layer before proceeding with the next filter expression!)

  • natural: “natural = ‘water’”
  • landuse: “landuse != ‘NULL’”

每一份结果数据集都要保存在”/epsg4326/exercise_data/“目录下面,可以将数据集保存为“水域”“土地利用”等名称。(Each resulting data set should be saved in the “epsg4326” directory in your new exercise_datadirectory (i.e. “water”, “landuse”).)

然后lines和points图层提取以下字段保存相应目录:(You should then extract and save the following fields from the lines and points layers to their corresponding directories:)

  • lines: “highway != ‘NULL’” to roads, and “waterway != ‘NULL’” to rivers
  • points: “place != ‘NULL’” to places

当你完成以上提取工作后,你可以将multipolygons, lines和points图层移除。(Once you have finished extracting the above data, you can remove the multipolygons, linesand points layers.)

现在你会得到一幅类似于下面的地图,样式会变得非常不一样,但这并不重要。(You should now have a map which looks something like this (the symbology will certainly be very different, but that is fine):)

../../../_images/post_osm_import.png

重要的是你现在拥有6个类似于上图所示的图层,并且每个图层都含有数据。(The important thing is that you have 6 layers matching those shown above and that all those layers have some data.)

最后一步从landuse图层创建用于本教程的 spatiallite 文件:(The last step is to create a spatiallite file from the landuse layer for use during the course:)

  • 右键点击landuse图层,并选择“另存为”。(Right-click the landuse layer and select Save as…)
  • 文件类型选择为 spatiallite 格式,并保存到“/epsg4326/”目录下,文件命名为landuse。(Select SpatialLite as the format and save the file as landuse under the “epsg4326” directory.)
  • 点击“确定”。(Click Ok.)
  • 删除“landuse.shp”和与它相关的文件(如果有的话)。(Delete the landuse.shp and its related files (if created).)

1.2.2. 动手试–创建SRTM DEM tiff文件( Try Yourself Create SRTM DEM tiff Files)

在第6单元(创建矢量数据)和第8单元(栅格),你也会用到你选择区域的栅格图像(SRTM DEM)。(For Module 6 (Creating Vector Data) and Module 8 (Rasters), you’ll also need raster images (SRTM DEM) which cover the region you have selected for your course.)

SRTM DEM可以从GIAR-CGI下载。链接为:http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/。(SRTM DEM can be downloaded from the CGIAR-CGI: http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/)

你需要将你选择的区域完全覆盖的栅格图像【译者注:如果一块不能完全覆盖,就多下载几块】(You’ll need images which cover the entire region you have chosen to use.)

当你下载了你所需要的文件后(1个或多个),将它们保存在“/epsg4326/exercise_data/raster/SRTM/”目录下(Once you have downloaded the required file(s), they should be saved in the “exercise_data” directory under “raster/SRTM/”.)

在第6单元,第1.2课的时候,会涉及到一个图像,包含三个要求学生需要进行数字化的学校运动场地。因此,你需要对你下载到的SRTM DEM tiff文件进行加工。没有必要必须是学校运动场地,任何三个学校用地类型都可以。(比如不同的校舍,操场和停车场等)(In Module 6, Lesson 1.2 shows close-up images of three school sports fields which students are asked to digitize. You’ll therefore need to reproduce these images using your new SRTM DEM tiff file(s). There is no obligation to use school sports fields: any three school land-use types can be used (e.g. different school buildings, playgrounds or car parks).)

例如示例数据中的图像:(For reference, the images in the example data are:)

../../../_images/field_outlines.png../../../_images/school_area_one.png

1.2.3. 动手试–替换标记(Try Yourself Replace Tokens)

创建本地化数据集的最后一步替换 conf.py 文件中的标记以便相应名称出现本地化版本的培训手册中。(Having created your localised dataset, the final step is to replace the tokens in the conf.py file so that the appropriate names will appear in your localised version of the Training Manual.)

你需要替换的标记有:(The tokens you need to replace are as follows:)

  • majorUrbanName: 默认为“Swellendam”, 用你所选区域的名字对其替换。(majorUrbanName: this defaults to “Swellendam”. Replace with the name of the major town in your region.)
  • schoolAreaType1: 默认为“athletics field”. 用你所选区域中最大的一种学校区域类型替换。(schoolAreaType1: this defaults to “athletics field”. Replace with the name of the largest school area type in your region.)
  • largeLandUseArea: 默认为 “Bontebok National Park”. 用你所选区域中最大的土地利用多边形的名字替换。(largeLandUseArea: this defaults to “Bontebok National Park”. Replace with the name of a large landuse polygon in your region.)
  • srtmFileName: 默认为 srtm_41_19.tif. 用你下载的SRTM DEM file名称替换.(srtmFileName: this defaults to srtm_41_19.tif. Replace this with the filename of your SRTM DEM file.)
  • localCRS: 默认为 WGS 84 / UTM 34S. 用你所选地区的正确的坐标系进行替换。(localCRS: this defaults to WGS 84 / UTM 34S. You should replace this with the correct CRS for your region.)

原作者:Linfiniti Consulting CC.   翻译:数据地图博客

【译】QGIS培训手册-课程简介

译者序

QGIS是一款非常棒的开源的GIS软件,但中文的教程材料非常少,在QGIS的官网看到有《 QGIS Training manual》的英文教程。觉得不错,看到原作者同意其他人翻译他的作品。所以尝试在本站翻译这一系列的教程。但由于本人英语水平实在有限,仅能做到大概意思不茬,如果有明显错误,请大家在评论中指出。万分感谢。

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QGIS训培训手册

1 课程简介

1.1 前言

1.1.1. Background(背景)

在2008年,我们推出了《Gentle Introduction to GIS》(GIS简介),这是为针对想学习GIS但不想被过多的术语和专业名词困扰的人们推出的完全免费和开放的内容资源。该教程南非政府赞助取得巨大成功——世界各地的人们写信我们告诉我们他们如何使用该教程来编写大学培训课程,用于教授GIS等相关知识。《GIS简介》不是一部软件教程(尽管我们用QGIS来讲述所有的例子),而是一部为想学习GIS的人而撰写的文章。(QGIS官网上)也有一部《QGIS使用手册》,其中提供了 QGIS 软件详细功能概述。但它不是一个系统的教程,而更像是技术参考指南。 在 Linfiniti Consulting CC(机构名称),我们在举行相关培训时发现亟需编纂另一部教程,以”培训-练习“的形式,让读者能够按序学习QGIS的关键内容。基于此,我们开始编写了本教程。(In 2008 we launched the Gentle Introduction to GIS, a completely free, open content resource for people who want to learn about GIS without being overloaded with jargon and new terminology. It was sponsored by the South African government and has been a phenomenal success, with people all over the world writing to us to tell us how they are using the materials to run University Training Courses, teach themselves GIS and so on. The Gentle Introduction is not a software tutorial, but rather aims to be a generic text (although we used QGIS in all examples) for someone learning about GIS. There is also the QGIS manual which provides a detailed functional overview of the QGIS application. However, it is not structured as a tutorial, but rather as a reference guide. At Linfiniti Consulting CC. we frequently run training courses and have realised that a third resource is needed – one that leads the reader sequentially through learning the key aspects of QGIS in a trainer-trainee format – which prompted us to produce this work.)

培训手册会顺带提供示范数据等所需的材料,来保证为期5 天的关于QGISPostgreSQL PostGIS的课程的顺利进行。课程结构内容适合初级 中级高级用户,并附有很多练习和答案说明。(This training manual is intended to provide all the materials needed to run a 5 day course on QGIS, PostgreSQL and PostGIS. The course is structured with content to suit novice, intermediate and advanced users alike and has many exercises complete with annotated answers throughout the text.)

1.1.2. License(版权)

../../../_images/license.png由Linfiniti Consulting CC.推出的免费QGIS训练手册,是基于来自Linfiniti 的早期手册版本,并遵循Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International许可,超出该许可的内容如下:(下面列了一些版权方面的信息,略)(The Free Quantum GIS Training Manual by Linfiniti Consulting CC. is based on an earlier version from Linfiniti and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at below.)

We have published this QGIS training manual under a liberal license that allows you to freely copy, modify and redistribute this work. A complete copy of the license is available at the end of this document. In simple terms, the usage guidelines are as follows:

  • You may not represent this work as your own work, or remove any authorship text or credits from this work.
  • You may not redistribute this work under more restrictive permissions than those under which it was provided to you.
  • If you add a substantive portion to the work and contribute it back to the project (at least one complete module) you may add your name to the end of the authors list for this document (which will appear on the front page)
  • If you contribute minor changes and corrections you may add yourself to the contributors list below.
  • If you translate this document in its entirety, you may add your name to the authors list in the form “Translated by Joe Bloggs”.(如果你整体翻译这篇文档,你可以把你的名字以译者的形式添加到作者栏)
  • If you sponsor a module or lesson, you may request the author to include an acknowledgement in the beginning of each lesson contributed, e.g.:

Note

This lesson was sponsored by MegaCorp.

注意,本课程由MegaCorp赞助。(下面一段字也再说版权方面的事,略)

  • If you are unsure about what you may do under this license, please contact us atoffice@linfiniti.com and we will advise you if what you intend doing is acceptable.
  • If you publish this work under a self publishing site such as http://lulu.com we request that you donate the profits to the QGIS project.
  • You may not commercialise this work, except with the expressed permission of the authors. To be clear, by commercialisation we mean that you may not sell for profit, create commercial derivative works (e.g. selling content for use as articles in a magazine). The exception to this is if all the profits are given to the QGIS project. You may (and we encourage you to do so) use this work as a text book when conducting training courses, even if the course itself is commercial in nature. In other words, you are welcome to make money by running a training course that uses this work as a text book, but you may not profit off the sales of the book itself – all such profits should be contributed back to QGIS.

1.1.3. Sponsoring Chapters(赞助)

This work is by no means a complete treatise on all the things you can do with QGIS and we encourage others to add new materials to fill any gaps. Linfiniti Consulting CC. can also create additional materials for you as a commercial service, with the understanding that all such works produced should become part of the core content and be published under the same license.

1.1.4. Authors(作者)

  • Rüdiger Thiede (rudi@linfiniti.com) – Rudi has written the QGIS instructional materials and parts of the PostGIS materials.(Rudi编写了QGIS简介和PostGIS等章节)
  • Tim Sutton (tim@linfiniti.com) – Tim has overseen and guided the project and co-authored the PostgreSQL and PostGIS parts. Tim also authored the custom sphinx theme used for this manual.(Tim 一直监督指导本项目,并合著 PostgreSQL PostGIS 部分。Tim 创作这本手册的狮身人面像主题
  • Horst Düster (horst.duester@kappasys.ch ) – Horst co-authored the PostgreSQL and PostGIS parts(Horst 合著了 PostgreSQL PostGIS 部分
  • Marcelle Sutton (marcelle@linfiniti.com) – Marcelle provided proof-reading and editorial advice during the creation of this work.(Marcelle工作提供了校对编辑咨询

1.1.5. Individual Contributors(个人贡献者)

Your name here!(你的名字)

1.1.6. Sponsors(赞助商)

  • Cape Peninsula University of Technology(开普半岛科技大学

1.1.7. Data(数据)

Note

The sample data used throughout the manual can be downloaded here:http://qgis.org/downloads/data/training_manual_exercise_data.zip

本手册中用到的数据可以从上面那个链接下载。

The sample data that accompanies this resource is freely available and comes from the following sources:

示例数据是免费的,其是通过以下来源加工而成:

1.1.8. Latest Version(最新版)

You can always obtain the latest version of this document by visiting the online version which is part of the QGIS documentation website (http://docs.qgis.org).

你可以从QGIS文档的网站上获取本教程的最新版。(http://docs.qgis.org).

Tim Sutton, May 2012(蒂姆 · 萨顿2012 年 5

【pdf】ArcGIS官方教程

这是我早些年自学ArcGIS的时候,从网上下载的一些来自ArcGIS官方的pdf教程。教程中对一些操作做了很详细的说明,不足之处是教程比较老,是以ArcGIS 9.0作为范例来讲的应该是(如果我没记错的话,也有可能是其他版本)。但这不妨碍对一些基础内容的学习和认知。

我对同类型的进行了合并打包,一共压缩了5个压缩包,同志们可按需下载。

QQ截图20150803130413

下载地址(发表评论无需注册):
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Arcgis分析教程: 链接:http://pan.baidu.com/s/1jG8IiYM 密码:4e2y
Arcmap使用手册: 链接:http://pan.baidu.com/s/1sjHXsRz 密码:8qjp
ArcMap编辑手册:链接:http://pan.baidu.com/s/1c09AuyO 密码:58t0
ArcCatalog使用手册:链接:http://pan.baidu.com/s/1dDg2cAd 密码:lfmf
Arcgis基础教程:链接:http://pan.baidu.com/s/1pJLzhqz 密码:5lj7

你可以从本站的官方网店里获取更多的矢量数据哦:https://shop135360196.taobao.com/category-1325165375.htm?spm=2013.1.0.0.7cf11a52C19CQW&search=y&catName=%CA%FD%BE%DD%C4%DA%C8%DD
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